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São Jorge Island registers 188 endemic taxa on land (three fungi, 63 plants and 122 animals), corresponding to 41% of the Azores. Given its richness over the island, there are communities of Juniperus brevifolia, Erica azorica and Laurus azorica.

Arthropods are the most representative group of 86 taxa, especially some endemic species of São Jorge, which are an important and valuable natural heritage.

It also has several areas classified within the Natura 2000 network and two Ramsar Sites: Planalto Central de São Jorge (central plateau - Pico da Esperança) and Fajãs de Santo Cristo e dos Cubres Lagoons.

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