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Terceira Island displays the largest and most balanced complex of natural unchanged areas of the Azores distributed from sea level to mountain area. The large patches of natural vegetation present on this island show all the native habitats of the archipelago, where are represented about 80% of the endemic species of the Azores. This vegetation is a relic of the cover that has occupied the southern half of Europe and part of the North American continent in a humid subtropical climate and was extinguished in the continents due to the large climate changes (glaciations), which occurred in the Quaternary period (between 1 million and 25 thousand years ago).

This island has several areas classified within the Natura 2000 network and two Ramsar Sites: Planalto Central da Terceira (central plateau - Furnas do Enxofre and Algar do Carvão) and Praia da Vitória Marsh.

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