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On Santa Maria Island, it is possible to find 674 species of vascular plants, of which 38 are endemic of the Azores. In terms of fauna, we highlight the presence of three species of beetle endemic of Santa Maria, namely Tarphius rufonodulosus, Tarphius pomboi and Tarphius serranoi, as well as the Regulus regulus sanctaemariae, the smallest bird of Europe, confined to the island.

Santa Maria has three classified areas in the Natura 2000 network and one Ramsar Site.

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